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Technical Graphics  Syllabus
1. RATIONALEThe course aims to develop the creative imagination
by encouraging pupils to reason in two and
threedimensions and by applying these abilities to the
solution of graphical and spatial problems of an
abstract and practical nature. The cognitive and
practical skills developed will act as a stimulus in
helping pupils to 'see' their enviornment with critical
and analyitcal awareness and will enhance their
aesthetic values. 2. COURSE STRUCTUREYear one consists of a series of modular topics which together lay the foundation for the following two years. While some of the topics are discrete most will be interdependent. At the core of the course are plane and descriptive geometries and communication graphics. These expand to underpin a range of topics that increase in factorofdifficulty over the three years. The course is so structured as to provide pupils with a stimulus for managing spatial problems mentally and communicating spatial ideas and solutions graphically. Shown in figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the course structure. Figure 2 represents the suggested modules contributing to basic graphicacy in the first year foundation course. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram showing the interrelationship of the topics in the course content. Fig.1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF COURSE STRUCTURE Fig.2 SUGGESTED ELEMENTS FOR YEAR ONE FOUNDATION COURSE Fig.3 FLOW DIAGRAM OF COURSE CONTENT 2.1 AIMS OF THE COURSE(a) To stimulate the pupils creative imagination
through developing their visual spatial abilities. 2.2 COURSE OBJECTIVESThe pupils will be able to: 3. COURSE CONTENTPREAMBLEThe course content is arranged under the headings of
topics and subtopics, many of which are directly
interrelated. The following are seen as the main areas
of study; plane geometry, descriptive geometry and
communication graphics (including design presentation
and computer aided design/graphics). Freehand drawing is
seen as in integral skill in all these areas as well as
a stimulus to spatial reasoning The first year of the
course will consist of basic modules taken from a
variety of topics and will be a foundation course for
the following two years. While the material content of
the first year modules will in the main be common to
both higher and ordinary levels, this will be structured
so as to allow pupils to work at their own level of
ability The emphasis in the first year should be on
material of an applied nature based on appropriate
geometric principles and be such as to stimulate pupils
interest and curiosity. 3.1 CONVENTIONS AND STANDARDSPupils are expected to adhere to current
standards, conventions and practices associated with
drawing and illustration. (8. S. schools and colleges
versions or I.S.O. equivalents would be appropriate)
However bearing in mind the creative/problem solving
nature of the subject, these should not be applied so
rigidly as to stifle individual flair. Pupils should be
familiar with the following: 3.2 PLANE GEOMETRYApart from its discrete value in problem solving this area will serve to support all other areas of the syllabus. The geometry and constructions should where possible be taught in the context of concrete applications. All constructions should be supported by the appropriate axiom or theorem as listed in the appendix. 3.2.1 CONSTRUCTIONSBasic geometric constructions. 3.2.2 PLANE FIGURESConstruction and geometric properties of: 3.2.3 LOCITo include the plotting of loci under specified
constraints in relation to fixed points, curves and
lines in one plane. 3.2.4 TRANSFORMATION GEOMETRYThis area deals with geometric transformations,
either singly or combined. as applied to problem
solving. 3.2.5 AREAS OF FIGURESThis should be dealt with by applying appropriate
Euclidian theorems and/or transformation geometry
theorems. 3.3 DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRYThis area is of particular importance in developing pupils ability in visual imagery and representation. Projections should initially be dealt with in a deductive manner without reference to projection systems, but with a knowledge of planes of reference. The sequencing of the material and teaching techniques should gradually develop spatial abilities relating to imagery, orientation, and visualization. Pupils should as a result be able to build clear images of objects in space and accurately represent these in twodimensions. The complexity of image and representation will vary according to level and ability Although the final solution to problems in this area will normally be represented in measured drawings, pupils should be competent in representing these through freehand drawings and sketches. 3.3.1 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONConsidering that orthographic projection is an
abstraction which allows accurate representation of
objects in threedimensional space1 teaching strategies
should aim at bridging the gap between concrete and
abstract spatial reasoning. Therefore to assist
visualisation the 'objects' represented in the
projection should where possible relate to pupil
interest and experience. For the purpose of this
syllabus the axes of geometric forms should generally
not be inclined to more than one plane of reference and
solids with oblique axes are not considered. 3.3.2 PICTORIAL DRAWING AND PROJECTIONThis area should be covered in two modules, (a)
pictorial views of objects on given ayes and without
reference to projection systems and axonometric planes,
and (b) projections within the classification of
projection systems and the framework of axonometric
planes.
3.3.3 SCALED DRAWINGPupils will learn to solve problems associated
with representing on paper or monitor items of small and
large dimensions. In the main concrete examples should
be used such as room or garden layout, record stylus.
etc The area also provides opportunity for group
activity and cooperation through measuring and
recording data, design of scales etc in connection with
buildings, classroom layout location maps and so on. 3.3.4 SURFACE DEVELOPMENTOrthographic projection including true length of
lines and edges and true shape of surface will
contribute to this In the initial module however complex
shapes requiring rotation or rebatment should be avoided
Any of these solutions may be modeled. (see also
modelling) 3.4 COMMUNICATION GRAPHICSMaterial from this area of study will permeate all other elements. The subtopics should provide a stimulus for creative thought and provide a basis for expression of ideas and information through the application of the illustration/communication skills and techniques acquired. It will also help the pupils to relate to the graphic environment they are constantly exposed to. 3.4.1 FREEHAND DRAWING AND SKETCHINGIt is intended that this area should contribute to
the development of the pupils intra and extrapersonal
communication skills and techniques and encourages
sketching as a stimulus in the thinking process The use
of a variety of media is recommended. These should
include squared isometric grid and other suitable
papers. 3.4.2 GRAPHICS IN DESIGNINGSketching and drawing are at the core of the process of designing and so these visual images are of particular importance in developing and refining ideas The pupils creativity will be encouraged through appreciating the problems associated with designing proposing solutions on paper and modelling these where appropriate. 3.4.2.1 THE PROCESS OF DESIGNINGThe pupils will acquire an overview of the design
process with particular emphasis on associated graphics. 3.4.2.2 MODELLING OF SOLUTIONSThis activity will contribute to the development
of the pupils spatial abilities through interplay
between if e drawing and the visuotactile stimuli.
Pupils will be encouraged to model appropriate solutions
using card or other materials. Design and execution of
packaging solutions is seen as making a significant
contribution. Surface development is a prerequisite and
integral part of this activity. 3.4.2.3 GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND REPRESENTATIONThis element will contribute to the pupils ability
to graphically symbolise information and ideas, and will
facilitate clear communication a well as rapid
interpretation of comparative data and statistics. While
the main focus will be on design and representation in
twodimensions, working in three dimensions is to be
encouraged. 3.4.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICSIt is intended that this area of the programme
will give pupils an understanding of the computer as a
tool in graphical communication and design. The pupils
should get 'hands on' experience in using the computer
to solve real problems of graphic presentation,
communication and design. A basic understanding of
'input', 'processing' and 'output' devices is expected
as well as some knowledge of contemporary hardware and
appropriate software. While a knowledge of a programming
language would be desirable this is seen as
discretionary The following should be included. 4. ASSESSMENT4.1 ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVESPupils should be able to :
Triangles
Parallelograms
The Circle
Theorems in Transformation Geometry
The above information is
available in book form through any Bookseller, or
directly from the GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS SALE OFFICE,
SUN ALLIANCE HOUSE, MOLESWORTH STREET, DUBLIN 2.

